A Review of Conifers in Iran: Chemistry, Biology and their Importance in Traditional and Modern Medicine

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2020
Authors:M. Akaberi, Boghrati, Z., Amiri, M. S., Khayyat, M. H., Emami, S. A.
Date Published:May-15-2020

: Cupressus sempervirens, Platycladus orientalis, Juniperus communis, J. excelsa, J. foetidissima, J. polycarpos var. turcomanica, J. sabina, and Taxus baccata are conifers in Iran. These plants have a long reputation in different systems of traditional medicines for a variety of diseases. This review aims to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information about the ethnopharmacological uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacology of these conifers. Furthermore this study comprises a bibliographical survey of major Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM) books regarding different medical aspects of these species. A literature search was conducted on the applications of these conifers both in traditional and modern medicines by referencing traditional textbooks and scientific databases. Ethnobotanical literature review indicates that various parts of the plants including cones, berries, leaves, bark, wood, and resin have been used for a broad spectrum of applications. In Iran, C. sempervirens, J. sabina, J. communis, and T. baccata have been used traditionally for the treatment of urinary, digestive, nervous, respiratory, and integumentary systems-related problems. The phytochemical constituents of these plants can be divided into two main categories: volatile and non-volatile components, all dominated by terpenes. Considering the pharmacological and clinical evidence, while some of the traditional applications of these plants are supported by modern medicine, implying the value of the traditional and folklore knowledge for finding new lead compounds in drug discovery, some have remained unexamined showing the need for much more studies in this regard.

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